Category Archives: Stage 4 S

Castle Fine Arts Foundry

Well, if you are doing a project on casting, where better to go and learn about it than a bronze foundry? Castle Fine Arts Foundry offers a one week work experience program for twenty people a year, giving people an overview of the whole bronze casting process. So for a week in March I headed off to the small village of Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant in Wales (fortunately I pre-booked a taxi so I didn’t have to try to pronounce it!).

I already had an idea of the process involved from doing the 5 day course at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park last year, so I jumped around the process more than most people probably would. It gave me a great opportunity to build on the knowledge I already had and to fill in the gaps. I worked in all areas of the foundry, mould making on some of Laura Ford’s cats (see images below), as well as some other artist works.

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I learnt more about working in wax and spruing up the moulds.

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I poured a couple of crucibles of bronze and watched a few more pours, as well as one of aluminium.


I sliced the neck off a grouse (can’t remember the artist’s name) and welded it back on again and put the texture back in.


I then played around with patination and waxing on the grouse.

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All in all, a very informative week, from which I think I now know everything I need to know to setup a small foundry in my back garden!

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Jerwood Drawing Prize 2014

I visited this exhibition at The Tetley in Leeds on 26 January 2015.

An interesting selection of drawings, all of which seem to have been chosen because they are “different” or “off the wall”. So, no wonder then that the winning piece is actually an audio track of someone describing an unknown object in a way one might draw it. There were photo-realism pieces (I can appreciate the skill involved, but they leave me cold), paper-cuts, paintings, pencil, charcoal and film. I don’t know what the submissions were like, but they seem to have picked one of everything and it made me wonder if that became the winning criteria!

Some of my favourites:

Jemma Appleby ‘#2230113’, 2013 – A tonal charcoal image which is reminiscent of a B&W photo of Bauhaus architecture.

Gary Edwards ‘There are no owls #1’, 2014 – Abstract image in graphite with marks made by scratching/distressing the surface.

Hilary Ellis ‘Enigma II’, 2014 – Threads through paper and knotted to look like a page of text.

Annette Fernando ‘Wait a minute, it’s the truth and truth hurts XIV’ 2013 – Ink drawing of a crumpled page with text on. Very skilfully done and an evocative image.

Michael Griffiths ‘Spectrum’, 2014 – Bold white lines through dark charcoal on one side, subtle crease marks on the other under oil pastel lines which work well together as a whole.

Jonathan Huxley ‘Breakdown’, 2014 – A very evocative and suggestive scene created with no defined lines, as if viewed through a fog.

Alzberta Jaresova ‘Position XVI’, 2014 – A very skilled drawing which asks questions about what the woman is doing / thinking.

Aileen Keith ‘Jetsam’, 2013 – A very bold images. Not clear what it is saying, but I like it.

Sigrid Muller ‘Seed Pods’, 2014 – Lovely tone and form.

Hitesh Natalwala ‘Untitled I’, 2013 & ‘Untitled 2’, 2013 – These look like sculpture designs which are interesting on their own. The background is also fascinating, being made up of hundreds of tiny cut out rectangles with small gaps around them, cut from the text of some kind of medical form. These were my favourite images of the exhibition.


Taylor, Anita, and Parker Harris, eds. Jerwood Drawing Prize 2014. London: Jerwood Visual Arts, 2014. Print.

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Henry Moore at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park

I went on the OCA study visit to the Henry Moore exhibition at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park. The bulk of this exhibition was in the underground gallery where no photography was allowed, so this will be sparse on pictures unfortunately.

Texture is very important in his work and he often leaves the marks which show how he has arrived at the final form. Negative space is also very important in his work. He often has holes in his sculptures and it seems that the shapes of these spaces are as important as the sculpture itself.

As for inspiration, it is obvious that the shapes of bones are a prominent source for the shapes he uses. Researching this after the visit, I found that some of the development of bones into sculptures can be seen in his sketches – Ideas for Sculpture: Transformation of Bones 1932.

With the majority of his work, there is a real sense of mass. This influence is confirmed in something he wrote in the Architectural Association Journal in 1930:

“The sculpture which moves me most is full blooded and self-supporting … it is static and it is strong and vital, giving out something of the energy and power of great mountains”

Focussing in on a few of the sculptures on display:

Head of a Woman, 1926

The facial features of this sculpture are very flat on a rounded head. They are asymmetrical, yet still appear balanced. There are obvious Aztec influences.

It was interesting to read after the event that the expressionless features on his sculptures could be interpreted as death like, or having the symptoms of shell shock victims or masks used to cover facial wounds.

Reclining Figure, Bone 1974 (I can’t find a picture of this on the internet to link to)

Reminders of bone / driftwood / seascape / landscape elements with a sense of time / worn away. The sculpture is bottom heavy like many of Moore’s works. There is a strong, heavy pull to the ground in his work, a real sense of mass. The holes and lines in the travertine marble add to the time worn and bone like elements of this sculpture.

Mother and Child, 1978

By contrast with many of his works, this sculpture is smooth with no evidence of tool marks. It is made out of a stalactite and is a beautiful material. The only image I can find of this work is of a smaller maquette.

Two standing figures 1981

This sculpture is designed to be seen from the front rather than in the round, the rear of the sculpture is much less finished and has much less detail than the front. They are sentinel figures, designed to be read. The figures are ugly in contrast to other Moore sculptures. Miro inspired?

Head: Lines, 1955

This is the combining of drawing and sculpture, in the way that the thin lines contour around the shapes. It is a beautiful object, but you get a different view of it when you take the “head” title into account, at which point it becomes cyclopic and a bit disturbing.

The circular section implies more of a mechanical/non-organic influence (perfect circle), and also has a different sense of time about it (quicker to produce and not time worn like the other shapes).

Three Piece Reclining Figure No.1 1961-62

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This is made up of very bone-like elements. The marks on it are all hard, chisel like marks, showing that it was carved rather than moulded.


Moore’s shelter drawings are very evocative and depict the suffering of people sheltering in the tube stations very well. His use of small amounts of colour and wax crayon as a resist for watercolour wash is extremely effective.

His prints of Stonehenge (e.g. Stonehenge IV 1973 and Stonehenge XI 1973) were even more impressive for me. Depicted almost entirely in black, the lines used are very sculptural and the impression is very dark and brooding.


Overall, this is a very interesting exhibition. I hope to revisit it if possible, having now read more about his influences.


Arts Council Collection. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>

Bridgeman Images. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>.

Getty Images. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>.

Lewison, Jeremy. Henry Moore. Köln: Taschen, 2007. Print.

Mitchinson, David, and Henry Moore. Celebrating Moore: Works from the Collection of the Henry Moore Foundation. London: Lund Humphries, 2006. Print.

Mutual Art. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>.

Stephens, Chris, and Richard Calvocoressi. Henry Moore. London: Tate, 2010. Print.

“Tate.” Tate. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>.

The Henry Moore Foundation. Web. 10 Apr. 2015. <>.

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Project 7: Casting, internal space/external form – ideas

The course notes for project 7 did not fill me with inspiration!

I thought about some possibilities:

  • bottles spilling their contents – cast bottles, plaster bandage spill to ground, pour liquid plaster over. Similarly pour colours over top and let mingle where meet.
  • could try lining a container with wood/etc. before casting?
  • Metal/wood rods through bottles, seal with latex?, then cast. Could be messy if doesn’t work!

I couldn’t think of anything which would really get me fired up though and so, after checking with my tutor, went my own way, with the new brief of ‘casting a number of items’!

So, with the brief now wide open, it was time to think of some new ideas.


I was that time of the year when I first started looking at this and these seemed to offer potential. I struggled to think of how to arrange them into a sculpture (which wasn’t too literal) though. To my mind, they would also be best to cast in glass which might be stretching what I can achieve at this point.

S4 Sketchbook p1 S4 Sketchbook p3

Maybe an idea to sit on for now.


The doughnut shape of the bronze casting I produced on the Yorkshire Sculpture Park course gave me an idea for a Yarnbury mining sculpture:

S4 Sketchbook p6

Yarnbury Moor above Grassington is an area which was heavily mined for lead. Many of the early mines used bell pits of shallow mining. I’m not quite sure what the difference between these is, but they both seem to leave a similar shaped hole which is similar to the doughnut shape of my bronze.

My idea was to create a simple doughnut shape, cast it in wax, work on the surface texture, then cast it in bronze.

The course notes for this project say “What we must realize is that casting in metal is a very expensive and time-consuming process which, as students at this level of study, is neither practical, appropriate or economical, as many of the sculptors’ works would be paid for by patrons or institutions.” – The “not economical” I will get around by casting myself and on a small scale, the “not practical or appropriate” I will ignore!

As a first bronze casting in my back garden, the size would be small. As for surface texture, I thought it would be good to represent the ore seam running through the shape, as well as a map of the area. Yes, it is literal and I know my tutor is trying to steer me away from this work, but it appeals to me and fulfils the casting brief (several times), so I will pursue this one.

Researching this on the web, I came across a cartoon about turning lead into gold. I wonder if gold could be applied to a bronze by keum-bo, a process I have used in jewellery making to fuse gold foil onto silver using heat and pressure; a potential idea to try out. Otherwise, the seam could be represented using a different patina?


Try casting my hand in a flicking position like my sculpture in Stage 2, but mount on its own.

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Project 7 – results – part 1

There was a steep learning curve with this project, with plenty of failed attempts at casting – some through stupidity on my part, others through not being fully aware of how the materials react:

  • if you happen to be stupid enough to pour hot geflex onto wax, funnily enough it will cause the wax to melt!
  • silicone rubber needs a thixotropic thickener or it will just run off the item to be moulded, but it is brilliant stuff when you have the thickener.
  • it is really quite difficult to get your last two fingers out of an alignate mould if you curve them backwards!
  • for plaster only moulds, there can be no hint of an undercut and even without any, plaster moulding in plaster (in my experience) is a disaster!

Pretty much everything was worked on at the same time as it took so long to do some of these pieces (especially with multiple failed attempts along the way!).

Cast balls

The first piece to be finished was the result of an experiment with slip casting and casting internal spaces – yes, I did inadvertently follow some of the course notes in the end!

I started out by creating a two piece mould of a polystyrene ball in plaster:


I then poured in casting slip and rotated the mould until it has all solidified, then left it to dry for a few days (it broke opening it earlier) before opening the mould and drying fully. As it was a solid mould, the shape had no easy way of contracting as it dried, this resulted in a dimple in the shape which made it look as if it had sunk into something. I thought this could work with a different colour slip poured onto a surface and several balls sitting in it. So I continued casting balls as I was doing other things and I ended up with 5 hollow balls.

As I was creating moulds out of plaster for other work, I was often left with some plaster I didn’t need, so I started to pour this plaster into various plastic boxes with the thought that I could use them for something at a later date. Thinking about how to lay out the balls into a sculpture, these came in handy.

Some initial ideas for layout:

ballssetup1 ballssetup2 ballssetup3

The heights didn’t work on this, so I stacked two different plaster moulds and arranged the balls on this. The sculpture flowed in one direction, so I arranged the base on more plaster moulds to tilt it forwards so the slip would flow down through it. Layout:

ballssetup4 ballssketch6ballssketch2

I then diluted some slip (possibly too much), crossed my fingers and poured it over the top ball to flow down over the sculpture:

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I had envisaged a thicker layer of the other slip and would have liked to have it crack in the way that Adrián Villar Rojas work does (maybe I should have combined it with earth?). However, the initial lack of cracking was actually due to it taking a very long time to dry out. When it eventually had, the slip dried in a sheet which sometime cracked and sometimes pealed up from the surface in a sheet (especially where the surface was non-porous on the base). Where it pealed up from the surface, I broke it into cracked pieces by pressing it back down again.

The finished piece:

Cast Balls 1 Cast Balls 2 Cast Balls 3 Cast Balls 4 Cast Balls 5Cast Balls 6 Cast Balls 7 Cast Balls 8 Cast Balls 9 Cast Balls 10

Clay, plaster, wood

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Project 7 – bronze casting

The course notes say that casting in metal is a “very time-consuming process which, as students at this level of study, is neither practical, appropriate or economical”. I am a believer that anything is possible and so saw this as a challenge rather than a barrier! The statement is certainly true if you don’t want to spend the total number of hours for the entire course on one stage, but otherwise it is actually possible to do. On the economics, bronze is an expensive material, but if you work small it needn’t be too expensive. The cost of the other materials is also quite high, although they will be sufficient to cast many more pieces. The really high cost is in time. In doing this, it has put me a long way back in progress toward completing my course, but hopefully I will be back on track from now on.

Heaps to learn and a very time consuming and technical process, but it was a great learning process and I will certainly be continuing with bronze casting in the future so it has stood me in good stead.

All the bronze works for this stage were worked on at the same time for project 7 and the assignment, due to the process being very involved and time consuming.

My experience at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park and doing work experience at Castle Fine Arts Foundry stood me in good stead here, but the more I delved into this, the more I discovered that I needed to get/make. I even got into some serious tool construction in manufacturing a tool to pick up and pour the crucible:


I’m not going to go into the full description of the process, but here are some images of my backyard foundry in action:

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As part of the casting, I produced 4 test tiles to try out different colour patination on. These looked like this:


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Project 7 – results – part 2


The initial stage for this was to use cardboard disks of decreasing size, covered in oil based clay and then varnished to create the initial mould for this:

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I then created a plaster mould from this:

Mining mould 1 Mining mould 2 Mining mould 3 Mining mould 4 Mining mould 5

I then painted the two halves of the mould with hot wax, then another layer, then joined them together and poured wax around them to get a thick coating but keep them hollow.

Mining mould 6

I then textured the “seem” with a pointed metal tool and added lines and other map based marks using a lino cutting tool.


After shelling up the piece, the wax was melted out:


And then the shell was cooked and the bronze poured in:


Apart from a dimple in one area (presumably caused by the metal contracting as it cooled?), the cast worked fairly well.

I tried adding gold using the keum-bo technique but that didn’t work, so I patinated in black, green and white and polished the seam area to make it shine before waxing.

I also made a couple of smaller pieces modelling the shape directly out of wax. The roughness of these smaller pieces worked better than the more regular large piece, which looks too much like a doughnut.

I then needed a suitable base to support the pieces and decided that burnt planks of wood would work well.

The final pieces:

Bell pit 1a Bell pit 1b Bell pit 1cBell pit 1d Bell pit 1e Bell pit 1f

‘Bell pit 1’
15 x 10 x 25cm
Bronze, wood

Bell pit 2a Bell pit 2b Bell pit 2cBell pit 2d Bell pit 2e Bell pit 2f

‘Bell pit 2’
7 x 4 x 13cm
Bronze, wood


For this sculpture, I made a container out of lino, taped together and fixed together and sealed to the base with mod-roc plaster bandage:

Hand mould 1

Unfortunately, the first of these I made too wide, so there wasn’t enough alignate to cover my hand in a flick position, so I changed my hand into a fist quickly before it set.

On the second attempt (fortunately I had only used half the packet on the first one), I made the container thinner and was able to get it to work:

Hand mould 2

After extracting my hand (easier said than done with both of these!), I then filled the cavity with wax (pouring it out when I thought it would be thick enough):

Hand mould 3 Hand mould 4

The fist cast didn’t work fully as there was a hole under the fingers and it was a bit short, so apart from casting it in wax, this is where that attempt ended:

Hand mould 5 Hand mould 6

The ‘flick’ cast worked better and so I capped off the wrist, added a post to the finger end to insert into the base and sprued it up to be cast:


The casting worked well apart from a funny area on the palm of flashing(?).


Once tidied up, I chose a brown patina and mounted the hand on a wooden post knocked into the garden.

The flick 2a The flick 2b The flick 2cThe flick 2d The flick 2e

‘The flick 2’
19 x 10 x 120cm
Bronze, wood

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Project 7 – Appraisal of outcomes

Demonstration of technical and visual skills


Clay slip was good to work with and offers a lot of potential to make repeated shapes. I’m hooked on bronze which is a lovely material to work with.


This project involved a great deal of technical skills which whilst I have not mastered yet, I think I have worked through pretty successfully.

Observational Skills:

‘Untitled’ came about through experimenting with the techniques and materials. ‘Bell pit 1’ was from a fully formed idea developing my ideas from a similar map based printing project. ‘Bell pit 2’ was playing around with a smaller version of the above. ‘The flick 2’ was trying out different techniques and materials to cast from life, with the subject from my previous sculpture.

Design and Compositional Skills:

‘Unititled’ – the ball arrangement works well here, but the base plaster is too thin and looks contrived on the four plaster pillars.

‘Bell pit 1’ – this piece is too regular a shape to work well.

‘Bell pit 2’– the irregular shape of this piece works much better than the bigger piece.

‘The flick 2’ – As a life-cast only the position of the hand is important in this regard, which was taken from my previous sculpture.

Quality of Outcome

‘Untitled’ has a more unfinished outcome which my tutor has been encouraging me to embrace. ‘Bell pit 1’ returns to a precise shape for which it suffers, ‘Bell pit 2’ works much more successfully for its roughness and has more energy because of it. ‘The flick 2’ worked quite well for a life cast, but personally has limited appeal as I prefer sculpture which show skill in modelling/construction rather than ready-mades/life casts/assemblages.

Demonstration of Creativity

I think that the technical aspects of the sculptures I chose to make in this stage has got in the way of creativity to some extent. ‘Untitled’ is the most creative of the sculptures produced in this stage, but I should have paid more attention to the base of the sculpture.


‘Untitled’ is an attempt to embrace unfinished materials in a similar way to the work of Adrián Villar Rojas.

‘Bell pit 1’ is a development of a similar map based printing project and ‘The flick 2’ is a development of my previous sculpture.


An interesting exploration of casting techniques with some thoughts to take forwards on the type of finish I wish to achieve on my pieces.

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Cornelia Parker at The Whitworth

I visited The Whitworth gallery in Manchester to see the Cornelia Parker exhibition.

She obviously enjoys ‘playing’, using anything and everything to make her sculptures and pictures. They are all about the ideas, with the actual sculpture/picture sometimes being secondary. For instance she displayed a number of images using wire which was made from the metal in bullets (‘Bullet Drawings’), or gold from dental filings. The arrangement of the wire in the frame looked pretty arbitrary and not arranged in an aesthetic way. This made many of the works interesting, but not decorative. Some of these were also humorous like ‘exhaled cocaine’ which was a pile of incinerated cocaine from a police disposal.

Sometimes the sculptures and pictures from these ideas are beautiful though, as well as being interesting. My favourite had to be ‘Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991’, a blown up garden shed and contents, reassembled as in mid-explosion and hung from the ceiling by wire around a light bulb.


This sculpture has a huge presence and looks fantastic with the light breaking through the gaps. What a great idea and vision to see how it would be transformed from an ordinary object into a work of art.

Another favourite was titled something similar to ‘pornographic image’, which was a butterfly picture made out of ink from destroyed pornographic video tapes – presumably a reference to the blot pictures used by psychologists? On a similar vein was ‘Poison and Antidote Drawing, 2012’ where she used both snake poison and it’s antidote to make butterfly pictures which have the ability to kill and save your life at the same time.

Other interesting pieces were cast pavement cracks, where she had used cold cast rubber to cast a section of pavement in London and also in Jerusalem. The London location being a graveyard where she often played hopscotch with her daughter and the link between them being that the graveyard houses William Blake who wrote the poem ‘Jerusalem’.

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I’m only part way through her book at the moment, so may add to this post later.


On display at the same time in The Whitworth was a room full of a large drawing by Cai Guo-Qiang surrounding a lake, called ‘Unmanned Nature’.


It turned out that this huge drawing was made using gunpowder laid on Japanese hemp paper and ignited (with cardboard on top to contain the explosion and put out the fire). Amazingly this was done on the floor in a sports hall somewhere, so is actually quite contained. It produces some wonderful marks and is extremely effective in this drawing. Who knew you could draw with gunpowder? Tempting to try this out myself, although maybe not the best idea…….?!


Blazwick, I. and Parker, C. (2013). Cornelia Parker. London: Thames & Hudson.

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Project 8: Bas-relief

This section of the course looks more interesting to me and I will follow the course notes for this project.

Some initial ideas:

  • I could produce panels like those on F.E. McWilliam to then construct into a large sculpture?
  • Map panels?
  • Could I do one of my residency drawings in this way?
  • Cast in something light and make up a picture / door covering?
  • Could cast a head in sections and texture the surface with bas-relief?
  • Try brushing in graphite and rubbing off on surface?
  • Try blowtorching the clay surface to make it crack first?


The course notes suggest looking at two sculptors in this section, Eduardo Paolozzi and Henri Matisse.

Eduardo Paolozzi (1924-2005)

‘Japanese War God, 1958’

This is a sculpture I think is hard to appreciate from a small picture in a book. On initial viewing it looks to be very cluttered with lots and lots of information, and not a very aesthetic form. Investigating further, this is a large sculpture at 1.5m tall, so viewing it as a 10cm picture is going to be difficult. Even so, I think this has far too much information in it to be viewed at a distance (as I am effectively doing).

I’m sure some of the forms in this sculpture might provide inspiration, but not at the scale I am viewing it at.

‘Hermaphroditic Idol, no.1, 1962’ and ‘The City of the Circle and the Square, 1963’

These are very different sculptures, the forms are much simpler, make more use of repetition, and are mostly symmetrical.

The first of these reminds me of a gaudy fairground machine, which doesn’t do anything for me.

The second looks like a mishmash of a piano/building on a machine base. It makes me wonder what it is supposed to represent (no idea really!), but doesn’t appeal to me aesthetically.

I think they are both too blocky, regular and almost plastic – the kind of look you’d get on a cheap, mass produced plastic toy – part of that could be viewing large sculptures at a very small size, but that is the impression I get.

Henri Matisse (1869-1954)

‘The Back 1-1V, 1909-1929’

These are interesting in showing the process of abstraction, and that Matisse is returning to a sculpture that inspires him again and again, over 20 years in this case. It shows that if an idea grabs you, you should keep working on it until you perfect it – probably something which you never achieve! These look like they are carved bas-reliefs, so not produced in the same way as will be done in this project.

Julius Schmidt (1923 – present)

‘Cast Iron, 1961’

This wasn’t a suggested bas-relief to look at, but it looks like it could have been produced in this way? This is full of information like the first Paolozzi, but doesn’t look as cluttered in the same way. Perhaps this is because even at the scale of the picture, you can tell that there are lots of interesting things to look at, a cityscape on a war machine base reminiscent of a star-wars walker (maybe this is where the inspiration for them came from?).

Having looked into Julius Schmidt more closely, it looks like these were probably formed using core-sand casting – something which looks like an interesting process. I guess they could be done in bas-relief though.


Read, H. (1964). A concise history of modern sculpture. London: Thames and Hudson.

Julius Schmidt. (n.d.). 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: Schmidt.pdf [Accessed 25 Jun. 2015].

Test Tile

I started out with a test tile as suggested, pressing in various tools / cogs / etc.

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I really liked the effect of some of these marks. The ones which particularly worked well were the tools, the fingers (particularly when wearing a rubber glove) and the tree branches.

Boxed logs

I decided in the end to go with the tree branches and construct a 6 panel box out of them. The thinking behind this being the trapping/compressing of irregular natural objects into a fixed regular container – representing mans need to control nature.

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I cast 6 panels, then cut the edges at a 45 degree angle before fixing them together with glue and filling in any gaps.


As a finish, I painted it with gesso to give a white finish.

Wooden box 1b Wooden box 1e

I also tried adding charcoal (I was hoping to get finger marks with this, but it didn’t work out that way).

Wooden box 2a Wooden box 2b Wooden box 2cWooden box 2d Wooden box 2e Wooden box 2f Wooden box 2g

‘Wooden box’
38 x 45 x 40cm
Plaster, acrylic paint, charcoal

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Project 8 – Appraisal of outcomes

Demonstration of technical and visual skills


I had not deviated from the course this time and used plaster. The firewood used to impress the design works well.


Cutting the plaster blocks to fit them together was not easy and took a few attempts to get right. Getting it perfect would have been very difficult indeed, but I have embraced the imperfections of the joins.

Observational Skills:

The end result matched the initial idea I had in my first sketch.

Design and Compositional Skills:

The box shape works well stood on one of its corners and the wood impressions provide bold marks.

Quality of Outcome

I am pleased with this sculpture and it actually looks better than I was expecting it to look. The use of charcoal could have been experimented with a bit more, maybe rubbed into the whole sculpture then rubbed off the highlights?

Demonstration of Creativity

Due to the amount of time I have spent on bronze casting, I devoted less time to this project than to the previous one (although it still took a considerable amount of time – how anyone produces anything in the time stated in the course notes I have no idea!). This meant that I followed my early idea and didn’t work on developing it further. I think that was because I am less inspired by bas-relief than other sculptural forms.


The thinking behind this sculpture was to represent mans need to control nature in the containing of irregular natural objects into a fixed regular container.


Bas-relief was interesting to experiment with, but it is probably not an area I think I will continue to work in.

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Assignment 4: Cast works and bas-relief in plaster


We had a two week pose at my life drawing class, so I did figure sketches of the model at the first class and then tried modelling the figure at the second. This is currently still incomplete:

JoSC015 JoSC014 JoSC013JoSC012 JoSC011 JoSC010

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I didn’t pursue this model further as I thought the pose would make it very difficult to mould and cast in wax.

After this, there was the opportunity of a full day life drawing, so I decided to go along to that and model from life – not the easiest thing to do as I found out! It might have been easier to concentrate on sketching and produce the model afterwards, but I came out of the day with a reasonable likeness of the figure:

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This was made in super-sculpey, a soft modelling clay which can be fired in the oven to harden it. I did this and then took a mould of the base and figure separately.

Life sculpture

This is where I learnt that I needed the thixotropic thickener to use with the silicone rubber as my first attempt was a disaster and only resulted in breaking the arm off. The second attempt was more successful, but took about a month to mould as I did each section separately with three coats of rubber and then plaster.


Finally, I had replaced my super-sculpey model in wax – it would have been far quicker to just do it again in wax, but it was a good learning process none the less!

The waxes needed work to tidy them up, then they were sprued, shelled up and then cast:

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They were then sandblasted and the sprues cut off and tidied up. They were both given a smooth finish and patinated. I considered drilling holes through the base and into the figure and attaching together with a bolt, but as they didn’t meet completely, you would be able to see this from some angles, so I left them separate.

Esther 1 Esther 2 Esther 3 Esther 4Esther 5 Esther 6 Esther 7

27 x 15 x 14cm

Map Tile

I quite fancied the idea of a 3D map tile. I visualised it being cast in resin or glass and balanced over a metal grid structure, or maybe cast in ice and filmed as it melted? Similarly, a wax version with multiple candle wicks inserted in could be lit and filmed burning, like the news images of the Kuwait oil fields alight?

S4 Sketchbook p5

This idea could be a goer, so I started constructing a tile to play with. This started out as pieces of foamboard, cut out to form a contour map and then added to with oil based clay. I then added a clay base ready to pour over plaster:

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I tried painting on wax to form a hollow shape first and it was a good job I did, it was very hard to get the wax out, so I suspect I have undercuts which would prevent other materials from being extracted.

So, I then needed a mould of the wax. I first added the road lines to the wax, before making a mould of this in rubber this time, followed by plaster.


The first cast was made using a clear wax. The aim was to have a burning landscape, although it may well all go up in flames once I light it – who knows!

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Once the tile was cast in wax (not as clear as it should have been, but it still looks OK), I then drilled holes through it to insert three taper like red candles, so they could be seen running down through the wax as an oil well would be bored down into a landscape. I sealed these in with the wax drilled out of the holes.


The next cast was made using a crystal clear resin – a substitute for glass which is what I originally imagined it to be made of:


I had some air bubbles in this which I think is a common issue with resin casting (I think a vacuum is needed to avoid this), it also made my workshop a no-go area with the smell for about a week! Apart from that, it seemed to work reasonably well.


Finally (as I thought the expansion of ice might end up breaking the mould), I produced a cast in ice.


The plan for this was a metal grid with the metal rods at various angles. To do this I constructed some supports to be able to arrange them as I went along. The grid gradually took shape and I then welded it all together:


Joining the pieces

Landscape 1a Landscape 1b Landscape 1c Landscape 1d

‘Landscape 1’
26 x 26 x 15cm
Resin, steel

Landscape 2a Landscape 2bLandscape 2c Landscape 2d Landscape 2e

‘Landscape 2’
26 x 26 x 15cm
Wax, string, steel

Landscape 3a Landscape 3b Landscape 3c Landscape 3d

‘Landscape 3’
26 x 26 x 15cm
Ice, steel


It then occurred to me to combine these pieces together in a video – the ‘perfect’ landscape (crystal clear resin), followed by the landscape melting (ice) and burning (wax) as we try our best as a species to destroy it. Maybe I’m deviating too far into mixed-media here, but I thought I would give it a go.

Unfortunately this video is too large to upload to my blog site! However, if I’ve done it right, it should appear here from utube:



Inspired by what looked like a lightning struck tree, I produced some sketches:

S4 Sketchbook p23

What with the growing number of tree diseases around and ash dieback recently coming to our area, I thought a sculpture titled “monument to the last tree” might work and set about trying to create one.

I needed a base to work on as I was going to work on the outer bark of the tree only, so it would be thin and probably not structurally sound in anything other than metal. So I started out with the inner shape of the tree in super-sculpey. I then made a mould of this in plaster:

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Very involved to get a simple shape, but all good moulding experience!

I then worked on this plaster base adding super-sculpey ‘bark’ and then moulding this in rubber and plaster, before casting in wax:

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This could have been done along with the base in retrospect which would have been far quicker and easier.

I then cut the gaps back in, worked on the edges and then sprued it up in a fashion which I hoped would work:


This was shelled up and cast:


Finally, it was patinated and waxed:

Monument to the last tree 1 Monument to the last tree 2 Monument to the last tree 3 Monument to the last tree 4

‘Monument to the last tree’
25 x 25 x 16cm


I have been continuing work on my residency idea (see the 2 large acrylic paintings which I have added to the end of my stage 3 assignment blog). My next idea on this theme was to have a residency ‘under construction’, i.e. the framework of the shape, without the outer shell.

S4 Sketchbook additional 1

I tried to construct this out of wax sprues. This wasn’t as easy as I had hoped, mainly because the temperature was too low for the sprues to be in a very malleable state and they tended to snap rather than bend very much. Doing this in summer should be much more successful.

I constructed the shape I was after, then cut it in half and spued it up. Again, I am using a lot of guesswork and blind hope that this will actually cast!


After shelling and casting, amazingly it all worked out just fine:


This was then reconstructed and placed around a similar shelf as used with my previous sculptures, then patinated.

Residency under construction 1 Residency under construction 2 Residency under construction 3Residency under construction 4 Residency under construction 5

‘Residency under construction’
40 x 18 x 10cm
Bronze, steel

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Assignment 4 – Appraisal of outcomes

Demonstration of technical and visual skills

The project I decided to do for these projects and assignments were a huge technical challenge (probably why the course notes say to avoid metal casting!). I think I have worked through these challenges well (although not without plenty of errors along the way). I think I always go for the most difficult option to learn more – I like the challenge!


Resin – Worked quite well but very smelly and would be costly for anything big. Interesting to experiment with, but probably not something I’ll use again in a hurry.

Wax – Not crystal clear as described, except on the bottom (maybe it reacts with the rubber in some way). Worked well to fulfil my burning landscape idea.

Ice – Expansion meant that the base was not flat, although I guess it could have been melted flat if required. I fortunately cut and then glued the plaster mould back together, which then allowed the mould to be broken apart to get the ice out. It worked well for the images I was aiming for.

Bronze – This is a fantastic material to use and I do love the finish you can achieve with it. It is a very involved and time consuming process to cast yourself though. Some of this was learning the process, but a lot is the waiting time between coats / etc.

Wood – I’m using offcuts of what I have lying around at the moment. It would be nice to get hold of some old railway sleepers or something with more character for future work.

Stone – I was planning to use stone for some of the sculpture bases, but couldn’t find out where to get any from and ran out of time! Hopefully I’ll explore stone bases in future projects.

In terms of materials, I think I have used a very wide range of these in this stage.


Despite a few mistakes along the way, I don’t think I can be faulted in this section. In my figure piece especially, I constructed a five part rubber and plaster mould to transfer my super-sculpey shape into wax. Then the bronze casting process is very involved, both in the spueing and shelling process, then in the metalworking and finished after having poured the metal. I also had to design and construct tools to enable me to pick up and pour the bronze from the crucible.

However, in concentrating so much on the process driven steps required to mould and cast my objects, at times I felt I had moved away from the creative / conceptual work in carrying this out, although that could be just because I did this work so long ago now. I look forwards to embracing this again in the next stage.

Observational Skills:

These are probably most acutely shown in my figure sculpture as this was directly sculpted in a life drawing session, with the base fabricated to fit the figure in a more natural way than the arrangement of cushions/etc. used by the model in the session.

Design and Compositional Skills:

I am pleased with the way my residency sculptures are developing and feel this area has a very wide range of possibilities to explore. I think that modelling and adapting my design as I play with the materials is the most natural way of working for me.

Quality of Outcome

I am very pleased with the quality of my work in this assignment.

‘Esther’ – a great opportunity to sculpt from life which has resulted in a very attractive bronze sculpture. It does have a few small marks which could have been ground off before patinating.

‘Landscape 1-3’ – These realised my ideas well, the ice and wax versions providing the most interesting (although temporary) outcomes.

‘Landscape’ – My video editing abilities are limited to using Windows movie maker, but I think this worked quite well.

‘Monument to the last tree’ – This is perhaps the least successful sculpture with the patination too uniform and dark to express what I had in mind.

‘Residency under construction’ – This worked surprisingly well, although the background shelf is too busy and would probably work better with a plain rusted shelf. I may change this at some point.

Demonstration of Creativity

My sculptures may have suffered from the technical focus of the processes I was going through, and because each piece took so long to realise, I didn’t develop my ideas as far as I have in previous projects. I think I should focus my efforts on this development in the next stage (although learning yet another process in carving may get in the way of that! I can see why this has come out of the newly revised course notes for this course).


These sculptures are not particularly inspired by other artists. ‘Esther’ came from a life drawing opportunity, ‘Landscape 1-3’ came from my fascination with all things to do with maps, ‘Monument to the last tree’ came from seeing a lightning struck tree and ‘Residency under construction’ is a development of my sculptures in stage 3.


Looking back, it is interesting to see that I have produced three sculptures in this section which make an environmental statement – maybe there is something I want to say with my work!


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Assignment 4 – Tutor feedback


My tutor left some very positive feedback about my submission for this assignment.

Project 7

For ‘Bell Pit’ he suggested that the wooden blocks they sit on are too heavy and large against the subtlety of the bronze and suggested fixing them directly to the surface of a white plinth or shelf. Looking at these again this seems obvious – I think I need to revisit my sculptures after some time has passed to make an assessment on how successful they are and what can be improved.

He suggested that ‘The flick 2’ could be expanded into a series of casts of my hand, but I would need to reflect more on what the sculptures are about. I could see how this would work and I may return to this idea at a later point.

Project 8

He suggested experimenting with hot wax on the gaps or the positive form in order to deepen the relief and seal the gaps. It took me a while to get my head around what he was saying here, but now I have it sounds like a good way of working, the smooth sections between the branches are not ideal, despite roughening up the surface of the clay before casting, this would increase the 3D effect of the branches and increase the contrast by providing dark shadows.

Assignment 4

‘Esther’ – he commented that it is a good idea to work from life and not the drawings – I tried modelling from sketches in my initial attempt, but for this sculpture it was actually modelled from life, with a few quick sketches of certain areas to remind myself of sections of the form whilst finishing off. He commented that the figure fells too unformed in its arms and waist. These are fair comments, but I think more down to this being an early attempt to model the figure and that despite being modelled from life, I was restricted to mostly doing it from one angle of view.

On my landscape series, he would like to see more writing about my ideas for a sculpture and research that relates to the ideas or inspiration for the work. I produced artist statements for each print for my printing course assessment and I will do the same now for my sculptures.

He felt the steel grid base was overly complicated in relation to the form it holds and that I could consider just using the four spikes to really heighten the tension in the work. I can see how this would work if viewed from level with the piece or even below it, but I think it would get lost if viewed from above which is the more likely viewing position. A local gallery owner thinks that this sculpture could be developed into sellable pieces, so I may have a go at trying this suggestion out in the future.


As expected, he picked up on this as an area which needs work, saying that I need to be more rigorous with my drawings. I do find this hard as I am reasonably happy with my drawing of existing objects, but when creating work I see the form in my mind and struggle to represent it well on paper. What looks like a scrappy drawing in my sketchbook is a fully formed sculpture in my head! I need to work on making this work better for other people to view.

Suggested reading and viewing

Tim Shaw

Tim Shaw’s sculptures use figures to tell a story. His work ‘Soul Snatcher Possession’ (2012) is very disturbing, full size figures in cloth appear as if on a stage, acting out some kind of ritual. The tights fabric stretched over the faces is reminiscent of a bank robber or something being used to smother or tie up and gag the figures. I’m not sure what is taking place, but it’s obviously not nice!

‘Middle World’ (1989 – 2009) also looks disturbing, although it is hard to tell what the figures are doing from small images on the web.

‘Man on Fire’ (2009) is a very powerful sculpture, showing a burning figure running with the top of the torso a mass of flames, on a base with the words “What god of love inspires such hatred in the hearts of men”. An extremely potent political and religious statement about the troubles in Ireland, based on a personal experience in Belfast.

‘Casting a Dark Democracy’ (2010) is another sculpture which makes a powerful political statement, this time about the war in Iraq. An Abu Graihb prisoner made from steel, barbed wire, black Polythene and electrical cable is in an almost crucifixed pose, towering over a pool of crude oil in the shape of the figure’s shadow.

References:, (2015). Riflemaker Contemporary Art | The Riflemaker Gallery | Tot Taylor and Virginia Damtsa Tim Shaw. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015].

Shaw, T. (2015). Tim Shaw. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015].

Giuseppe Penone

Giuseppe Penone sculpts out of wood mostly, or uses natural materials or forms in his work. In ‘Spazio di Luce’ 2012 he sculpts a tree with branches, then carves out the centre of the trunk and textures it as tree bark before casting it in bronze. The centre of the tree is then covered in gold leaf and the result is a very striking sculpture.

‘Spazio di Luce’ means “space of light”, the empty space of the tree coated in gold giving the light. It was created by adding layers of wax over the tree, so the internal wax side shows the bark of the tree whilst the outside of the wax still looks like tree bark, but shows the fingerprints of the people making the wax covering. He uses the branches to hold the pieces upright, making them look like they could walk. He then leaves some branches unattached to let in points of light along the tree trunk.

Looking at other work such as ‘Albero Porta—Cedro / Door Tree—Cedar’ (2012), he often carves trees from the centre of larger trees, or beams in some cases. Reading further it is his intention to reveal the past life of the tree by sculpting the smaller tree within it.

He creates some fantastic sculptures by focussing in on trees in this way – I will keep an eye out for his work.


Whitechapel Gallery, (2015). The Bloomberg Commission: Giuseppe Penone: Spazio di Luce – Whitechapel Gallery. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015]., (2015). Giuseppe Penone – Gagosian Gallery. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015].

Yoo, A. (2012). Young Tree Carved Inside Old Tree. [online] My Modern Met. Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015].

YouTube, (2015). The Bloomberg Commission: Giuseppe Penone: Spazio di Luce. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Jul. 2015].

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